Even in good years, large numbers of displaced workers experience large earnings losses. In the US, for example, only about one-quarter of the workforce is covered by severance plans, though that quarter disproportionately includes workers with a high risk of being displaced from long-tenured jobs. Incorporating severance in the unemployment insurance UI system would seem an inexpensive way to expand coverage if policymakers accepted the importance of this insurance instrument.
The financing of severance benefits may explain the reluctance to vary benefits with business conditions. Both mandated and voluntary programs are employer funded, usually on a pay-as-you-go basis. The last-in, first-out LIFO principle of many layoff protocols causes the value of payouts to increase at a growing rate with the severity of the cutback. Clearly, additional payouts in bad times may strain firm finances. Although severance costs may be substantial to a firm when it must make a major reduction in its workforce, the average cost to employers of severance plans is relatively modest.
Many workers never qualify for severance benefits. For example, workers who leave voluntarily quit to seek better opportunities elsewhere are normally not eligible for benefits.
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Similarly, older workers who retire do not generally qualify for severance benefits. Moreover, many workers who do receive benefits receive only small payments or none at all if there is a minimum service requirement. Under the usual LIFO rule, long-tenured workers do not often experience permanent job loss. Large severance payouts require decades of relatively stable employment punctuated by a precipitous drop. There are a host of potential moral hazards to consider in any wage-loss insurance scheme.
The firm is the only fully reliable source of information on its own economic distress, and, if separation benefits are firm financed on a pay-as-you-go basis, it may choose to conceal low demand, retaining workers when it would actually be more efficient to release them. The absence of actual-loss wage insurance, despite its policy appeal, suggests that moral hazard and other concerns are larger for this insurance instrument. Such concerns are not hard to imagine.
Search moral hazard is an obvious problem. Finding a well-paid job likely involves more demanding search activities than finding a low-paying one, so the insured displaced worker is likely to engage in less vigorous search. Indeed, if fully insured, the worker would simply accept the first job offer, whatever its quality. Further, less familiar moral hazard problems also emerge in actual-loss plans, including distortions in job choices by workers and in the provisions of jobs of various types by firms.
For example, wages are only one dimension of a job; other dimensions include required effort, occupational safety, training opportunities, and fringe benefits. If the wage insurance plan compensated displaced workers for half their wage losses, token wage payments would qualify volunteers for half pay from the wage insurance systems. Esos que tanto critican el proceso, son los mismos que nombraron Gerrilleros como Gestores de Paz karina , que ordenaron alojar en el Teuqendama a guerrilleros reincertados, que dejaron libres a guerrilleros en el y el pago fue la masacre de los Diputados del Valle.
Se requiere de un gran esfuerzo para transformar esta inercia de varios siglos. Usuarios de LSV todo lo que han dicho es cierto y hasta mas, pero independient Conociendo a nuestros campesinos, v De lo contrario Celebro los avances en este aspecto, y deseo que sea el primer paso, para hacer la brecha social colombiana menor. De acuerdo con lo que dice El Paisa El problema agrario ha sido uno de los mayores causantes de la violencia Gobierno Duque Antioquia Desarrollo Rural.
Gobierno Duque Desarrollo Rural. Pasar al contenido principal. Comentarios Octavio Cruz Gonzalez 27 de Mayo.
However, it fails in other relevant areas, like suppressing dualism, improving the effectiveness of active labor market policies, enhancing productivity and maintaining the level of social protection of workers. Las expansiones contribuyen a reducirlo y las recesiones y crisis a aumentarlo. En este trabajo se analiza el contenido de la reforma del mercado de trabajo implementada por el gobierno de Mariano Rajoy Tabla 1. El motivo fue un saldo migratorio sumamente favorable. En , el saldo vegetativo diferencia entre nacimientos y defunciones por cada 1.
We base our empirical tests on a self created index of segment disclosure. Our results contribute to a better understanding of 1 the incentives for providing segment disclosures, and 2 how accounting quality quality of segment information and earnings quality is related to the cost of capital. Keywords: Segment disclosure, earnings quality, diversification, information, asymmetries, forecast error, cost of capital. Using a large US sample for the period we find a negative association between conservatism and measures of over- and under- investment, and a positive association between conservatism and future profitability.
This is consistent with firms reporting more conservative numbers investing more efficiently and in more profitable projects. Our results add to a growing stream of literature suggesting that eliminating conservatism from accounting regulatory frameworks may lead to undesirable economic consequences. Keywords: Conservatism, earnings asymmetric timeliness, investment efficiency, overinvestment, underinvestment. The main objective of this study is to analyze how these factors affect social entrepreneurial activity, in the light of the institutional economic theory as the conceptual framework.
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Using linear regression analysis for a sample of 49 countries, is studied the impact of informal institutions social needs, societal attitudes and education and formal institutions public spending, access to finance and governance effectiveness on social entrepreneurial activity. The findings suggest that while societal attitudes increase the rates of social entrepreneurship, public spending has a negative relationship with this phenomenon.
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Finally, the empirical evidence found could be useful for the definition of government policies on promoting social entrepreneurship. In this article we propose a methodology to decompose whether the benefits in terms of effciency derived from transfers of powers from higher to municipal levels of government "the economic dividend" of devolution might increase over time.
This methodology is based on linear programming approaches for effciency measurement. We provide anapplication to Spanish municipalities, which have had to adapt to both the European Stability and Growth Pact as well as to domestic regulation seeking local governments balanced budget. Results indicate that efficiency gains from enhaced decentralization have increased over time. However, the way through which these gains accrue differs across municipalities -in some cases technical change is the main component, whereas in others catching up dominates.
Keywords: activity analysis, decentralization dynamics, efficiecny, local government. Using accounting data, this paper examines the effects that selected start-up conditions have on the economic performance observed in a sample of Spanish manufacturing firms. The results indicate significant differences regarding the initial conditions, showing lower levels of assets and number of employees what have implications on the economic performance of women-controlled firms.
Albena Pergelova, Diego Prior, Josep Rialp Abstract: This research focuses on a major concern for marketers addressing the claims of inefficiency of the spending on advertising. We examine whether the Internet can help increase overall advertising efficiency. Using a sample from the Spanish automobile industry, we combine a nonparametric method - Data Envelopment Analysis - with recent important insights from statistics and econometrics studies, and we find that online advertising improves the efficiency levels and this effect is more pronounced in the long-term temporal framework.
David Hillier, Charlie X. China is used as a laboratory because of the prevalent state shareholdings in exchange-listed firms. In this context, we specifically consider the trade-offs involved in the voluntary formation of an audit committee when the controlling shareholder is the state. The decision to improve corporate governance in this case, introduce an audit committee is shown to be value relevant and a function of existing agency relationships and non-trivial implementation costs.
Our findings are robust to the level of pyramid groups, the ownership-control wedge, and financial leverage. The research adds to the debate regarding the effect of government shareholdings on corporate culture and performance - a topic that hastaken on renewed importance in recent times. Simon Cadez, Chris Guilding Abstract: This is the first study to adopt a configurational paradigm in an investigation of strategic management accounting SMA adoption.
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The study examines the alignment and effectiveness of strategic choice and strategic management accounting SMA system design configurations. Six configurations were derived empirically by deploying a cluster analysis of data collected from a sample of large Slovenian companies. The first four clusters appear to provide some support for the central configurational proposition that higher levels of vertical and horizontal configurational alignments are associated with higher levels of performance.
Evidence that contradicts the theory is also apparent, however, as the remaining two clusters exhibit high degrees of SMA vertical and horizontal alignment, but low performance levels. A particular contribution of the paper concerns its demonstration of the way that the configurational paradigm can be operationalised to examine management accounting phenomena and the nature of management accounting insights that can derive from applying the approach.
Keywords: Strategic management accounting, configurations, equifinality, strategy, market orientation. Chris Steyaert, Timon Beyes. A partir de los resultados de este trabajo puede inferirse que los factores informales tienen un mayor impacto en la actividad emprendedora que los factores formales.
However, there are limited research and knowledge on gender, management, and organization in CEE Metcalfe and Afanassieva, and, particularly, on the performance of female-owned companies.
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