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Greg Popcak July 2, Want to see abortion made illegal? Catholics first arrived in New Zealand in The Church has had "a continuous presence there from the time of the permanent settlement by Irish Catholics in the s, and the first conversions of Maori in the s. In the 21st century, Catholicism expresses itself as a left-wing social movement, which includes Jim Anderton ; however, other children of established Catholic families have entered politics, where they tend to join right-wing individualist forces Jim Bolger , Peter Dunne , Gerry Brownlee.
King notes p. A previous Catholic Prime Minister was Michael Joseph Savage , who instigated numerous social reforms, evidence that since the s, Catholics have been more at odds within their own ranks, than discriminated against in New Zealand society. Unification into the German Empire in saw a country with a Protestant majority and large Catholic minority, speaking German or Polish.
Anti-Catholicism was common. Catholics were numerous in the South Bavaria and west Rhineland and fought back. Bismarck intended to end Catholics' loyalty with Rome ultramontanism and subordinate all Germans to the power of his state. Priests and bishops who resisted the Kulturkampf were arrested or removed from their positions.
By the height of anti-Catholic legislation, half of the Prussian bishops were in prison or in exile, a quarter of the parishes had no priest, half the monks and nuns had left Prussia, a third of the monasteries and convents were closed, parish priests were imprisoned or exiled, and thousands of laymen were imprisoned for helping the priests. The Catholic Church faced repression in Nazi Germany Hitler despised the Church although he had been brought up in a Catholic home.
The long term aim of the Nazis was to de-Christianise Germany and restore Germanic paganism. Evans writes that Hitler believed that in the long run National Socialism and religion would not be able to co-exist, and he stressed repeatedly that Nazism was a secular ideology, founded on modern science: "Science, he declared, would easily destroy the last remaining vestiges of superstition".
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Germany could not tolerate the intervention of foreign influences such as the Pope and "Priests, he said, were 'black bugs', 'abortions in black cassocks'". Adolf Hitler had some regard for the organisational power of Catholicism, but towards its teachings he showed nothing but the sharpest hostility, calling them "the systematic cultivation of the human failure":  To Hitler, Christianity was a religion that was only fit for slaves and he detested its ethics.
Alan Bullock wrote: "Its teaching, he declared, was a rebellion against the natural law of selection by struggle and the survival of the fittest ".
For political reasons, Hitler was prepared to restrain his anti-clericalism, seeing danger in strengthening the Church by persecuting it, but he intended to wage a show-down against it after the war. The Nazis claimed jurisdiction over all collective and social activity, interfering with Catholic schooling, youth groups, workers' clubs and cultural societies.
- The Reformation.
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Vice Chancellor Papen meanwhile, amid continuing molestation of Catholic clergy and organisations, negotiated a Reich concordat with the Holy See, which prohibited clergy from participating in politics. It quickly became clear that [Hitler] intended to imprison the Catholics, as it were, in their own churches. They could celebrate mass and retain their rituals as much as they liked, but they could have nothing at all to do with German society otherwise.
Catholic schools and newspapers were closed, and a propaganda campaign against the Catholics was launched. Almost immediately after agreeing the Concordat, the Nazis promulgated their sterilization law, an offensive policy in the eyes of the Catholic Church and moved to dissolve the Catholic Youth League. Clergy, nuns and lay leaders began to be targeted, leading to thousands of arrests over the ensuing years, often on trumped up charges of currency smuggling or "immorality". By , the Church hierarchy in Germany, which had initially attempted to co-operate with the new government, had become highly disillusioned.
In March, Pope Pius XI issued the Mit brennender Sorge encyclical - accusing the Nazis of violations of the Concordat, and of sowing the "tares of suspicion, discord, hatred, calumny, of secret and open fundamental hostility to Christ and His Church". The Pope noted on the horizon the "threatening storm clouds" of religious wars of extermination over Germany. By all Catholic denominational schools had been disbanded or converted to public facilities. Later Catholic protests included the 22 March pastoral letter by the German bishops on "The Struggle against Christianity and the Church".
Of a total of 2, clergy imprisoned at Dachau, some 2, or Many clergymen were murdered. John Higham described anti-Catholicism as "the most luxuriant, tenacious tradition of paranoiac agitation in American history". Historian Arthur Schlesinger Sr. Historian Joseph G. Mannard says that wars reduced anti-Catholicism: "enough Catholics supported the War for Independence to erase many old myths about the inherently treasonable nature of Catholicism During the Civil War the heavy enlistments of Irish and Germans into the Union Army helped to dispel notions of immigrant and Catholic disloyalty.
American anti-Catholicism has its origins in the Protestant Reformation which generated anti-Catholic propaganda for various political and dynastic reasons. Because the Protestant Reformation justified itself as an effort to correct what it perceived were the errors and the excesses of the Catholic Church, it formed strong positions against the Catholic bishops and the Papacy in particular. These positions were brought to New England by English colonists who were predominantly Puritans. They opposed not only the Catholic Church but also the Church of England which, due to its perpetuation of some Catholic doctrines and practices, was deemed insufficiently "reformed".
Furthermore, English and Scottish identity to a large extent was based on opposition to Catholicism. Because many of the British colonists, such as the Puritans and Congregationalists , were fleeing religious persecution by the Church of England, much of early American religious culture exhibited the more extreme anti-Catholic bias of these Protestant denominations. Monsignor John Tracy Ellis wrote that a "universal anti-Catholic bias was brought to Jamestown in and vigorously cultivated in all the thirteen colonies from Massachusetts to Georgia".
For example, the second Massachusetts charter of October 7, decreed "that forever hereafter there shall be liberty of conscience allowed in the worship of God to all Christians, except Papists , inhabiting, or which shall inhabit or be resident within, such Province or Territory". She was hanged as a witch in , shortly before the much more famous witchcraft trials in nearby Salem.
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Monsignor Ellis noted that a common hatred of the Catholic Church could unite Anglican clerics and Puritan ministers despite their differences and conflicts. The Patriot reliance on Catholic France for military, financial and diplomatic aid led to a sharp drop in anti-Catholic rhetoric. Indeed, the king replaced the pope as the demon patriots had to fight against. Anti-Catholicism remained strong among Loyalists, some of whom went to Canada after the war while most remained in the new nation. By the s, Catholics were extended legal toleration in all of the New England states that previously had been so hostile.
George Washington was a vigorous promoter of tolerance for all religious denominations as commander of the army where he suppressed anti-Catholic celebrations in the Army and appealed to French Catholics in Canada to join the American Revolution; a few hundred of them did.
Likewise he guaranteed a high degree of freedom of religion as president , when he often attended services of different denominations. Local leaders enthusiastically welcomed French naval and military officers, realizing the alliance was critical to winning independence. The Catholic chaplain of the French army reported in that he was continually receiving "new civilities" from the best families in Boston; he also noted that "the people in general retain their own prejudices. Fear of the pope agitated some of America's Founding Fathers.
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The legislature refused, but did pass a law designed to reach the same goal by requiring all office-holders to renounce foreign authorities "in all matters ecclesiastical as well as civil". He is always in alliance with the despot, abetting his abuses in return for protection to his own. Anti-Catholic fears reached a peak in the nineteenth century when the Protestant population became alarmed by the influx of Catholic immigrants. Historian David Montgomery argues that the Irish Catholic Democrats in Philadelphia had successfully appealed to the upper-class Whig leadership.
The Whigs wanted to split the Democratic coalition, so they approved Bishop Kendrick's request that Catholic children be allowed to use their own Bible.
What 19th-century German anti-Catholicism can teach us about our own church
That approval outraged the evangelical Protestant leadership, which rallied its support in Philadelphia and nationwide. Montgomery states:. The nativist movement found expression in a national political movement called the "American" or Know-Nothing Party of It had considerable success in local and state elections in by emphasizing nativism and warning against Catholics and immigrants. It nominated former president Millard Fillmore as its presidential candidate in the election.
However, Fillmore was not anti-Catholic or nativist; his campaign concentrated almost entirely on national unity. Historian Tyler Anbinder says, "The American party had dropped nativism from its agenda.
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